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NARRATIVE

OF THE

UNITED STATES

EXPLORING EXPEDITION.

DURING THE YEARS

1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, 1841

BY

CHARLES WILKES, U. S. N.

COMMANDER OF THE EXPEDITION, MEMBER OF THE AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY, ETC.

IN FIVE VOLUMES, AND AN ATLAS.

VOL. V.

PHILADELPHIA:

LEA & BLANCHARD. 1845.

ENTERED, ACCORDING TO THE ACT OF CONGRESS, IN THE YEAR 1844,

BY CHARLES WILKES, U. S. N.,

IN THE CLERK'S OFFICE OF THE DISTRICT COURT FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.

STEREOTYPED BY J. FAGAN. PRINTED BY C. SHERMAN.

CONTENTS OF VOL. V.

CHAPTER I.

DEPARTURE FROM OAHU WASHINGTON ISLAND JARVIS'S ISLAND MAGNETIC EQUATOR ENDERBURY'S ISLAND BIRNIE'S ISLAND -HULL'S ISLAND DUKE OF YORK S ISLAND— ITS NATIVES VISIT THE SHIP— THEIR ALARM AT THE FIRING OF CANNON A PARTY LANDS ITS RECEPTION TATTOOING— VILLAGE— QUAYS-AB- SENCE OF CULTIVATION— MUSIC-CHARACTER OF THE NATIVES PRODUCTIONS DUKE OF CLARENCE'S ISLAND BOWDITCH'S ISLAND NATIVES SEEN FISHING- INTERVIEW WITH THEM A PARTY LANDS— PRIEST-CAPTAIN HUDSON LANDS INTERVIEW WITH THE KING— VILLAGE AND TEMPLE— RELICS OF A VESSEL— WELL -DRUMS— DRESS AND ORNAMENTS-MANUFACTURES AND TOOLS - POPULATION GENTE HERMOSAS-SAVAII— UPOLU— APIA— STORM OF DECEMBER 1840— HURRICANES HALOS PEA, THE CHIEF OF APIA MODE OF TRADING— IMPROVEMENTS— NEW EFFORTS OF THE MISSIONARIES— MALIETO AS ILLNESS, AND ITS CAUSE— MOLE STRONG GALE— DESERTION FROM THE SURVEYING PARTY— DESERTERS RECOVERED —DEMAND FOR THE MURDERER OF SMITH— IT IS REFUSED-EXCURSIONS OF THE NATURALISTS— JOE GIMBLET— VISIT TO MALIETOA— RETURN OF THE BOATS— CAP- TAIN HUDSON PROCEEDS TO SALUAFATA, AND DESTROYS IT-RESULTS OF THE PUNISHMENT— FRUITLESS ATTEMPT TO CAPTURE OPOTUNO— MATAATU— MALIETOA —FAREWELL VISIT FROM THE CHIEFS— THE VESSELS SAIL FROM MATAATU. .. .1—34

CHAPTER II.

THE PEACOCK AND TENDER LEAVE THE SAMOAN GROUP— ELLICE'S GROUP-CANOES —ITS NATIVES— THEIR LANGUAGE— DEPEYSTER'S ISLAND— ITS NATIVES— ALBINOS—

M

vi CONTENTS.

CLOTHING OF ITS INHABITANTS— THEIR SYMBOL OF PEACE— WOMAN AND CHIEF OF THE ISLAND— FOOD OF THE NATIVES-HARBOUR-VISIT FROM THE KING-THE NATIVES' KNOWLEDGE OF OTHER LANDS— THEIR RELIGION— SPEIDEN'S ISLAND- HUDSON'S ISLAND— ST. AUGUSTINE DRUMMOND'S ISLAND— ITS NATIVES —THEIR HEAD DRESS— THEIR LANGUAGE— THEIR WEAPONS THEIR DEFENSIVE ARMOUR- THEIR ORNAMENTS— THEIR CANOES— A PARTY LANDS AT UTIROA— ITS RECEPTION -RUDENESS AND PILFERING OF THE NATIVES— DANCE-SECOND VISIT TO UTIROA —RECEPTION IN THE COUNCIL-HOUSE— INCREASED RUDENESS OF THE NATIVES- ONE OF THE SEAMEN MISSING— MESSAGE SENT TO THE UT1ROANS— TOWNS ON DRUMMOND'S ISLAND— DETERMINATION TO PUNISH UTIROA FOR THE MURDER- EXPEDITION AGAINST THAT TOWN PARLEY WITH ITS INHABITANTS - UTIROA BURNT CONDUCT OF THE NATIVES OF ETA CHARACTER OF THE PEOPLE OF DRUMMOND'S ISLAND SUPPLIES FOR SHIPS BISHOP'S ISLAND HENDERVILLE ISLAND-HALL'S ISLAND— APAMAMA JOHN KIRBY TAKEN ON BOARD— WOODLE'S ISLAND-DISGRACEFUL CONDUCT OF AN ENGLISH WHALER— ERRORS OF CHARTS- TARAWA— APIA— IDOL— THE TENDER GROUNDS— DRIFT OF THE PEACOCK— THREAT- ENED ATTACK ON THE TENDER— MATTHEW'S ISLAND PITT'S ISLAND MAKIN— ROBERT WOOD TAKEN ON BOARD-NATIVES OF PITT'S ISLAND— THEIR CANOES— THEIR TREATMENT OF FEMALES-KING TEKERE AND HIS RELATIVES-A NATIVE DESIRES TO BE TAKEN FROM THE ISLAND 35—75

CHAPTER III.

SOURCES OF INFORMATION IN RELATION TO THE KINGSMILL GROUP— ISLANDS OF WHICH IT IS COMPOSED— THEIR GENERAL CHARACTER— THEIR SOIL— TARO-PONDS- TRADITION OF THE ORIGIN OF THE PEOPLE— ANCIENT INTERCOURSE BETWEEN THE ISLANDS— PHYSIOGNOMY AND APPEARANCE OF THE NATIVES-THEIR SOCIAL STATE— GOVERNMENT-DESCENT OF PROPERTY— RELIGIOUS BELIEF-PRIESTS-ORA- CLES-OMENS—PRETENDED COMMUNICATION WITH SPIRITS-BELIEF IN A FUTURE STATE— THEIR ELYSIUM— THEIR MODE OF LIFE— THEIR CHARACTER— THEIR TREAT- MENT OF CHILDREN, OF THE AGED, AND OF WOMEN— THEIR WARS-CANNIBALISM NOT PRACTISED THEIR WEAPONS THEIR HOUSES AND CANOES-THEIR MANU- FACTURES—DRESS-ORNAMENTS—THEIR FOOD— THEIR MODE OF COOKING-THEIR AMUSEMENTS— THEIR MARRIAGES— MODE OF GIVING NAMES-PRACTICE OF ABOR- TION—TATTOOING—FUNERAL CEREMONIES -DISEASES-CLIMATE OF THE GROUP— EARTHQUAKES POPULATION THEIR INTERCOURSE WITH STRANGERS THEIR PRONENESS TO SUICIDE-THEIR IDEA OF AN ACCOMPLISHED PERSON— CONTRAST BETWEEN PITT'S AND THE OTHER ISLANDERS-DEPARTURE OF THE PEACOCK AND FLYING-FISH FROM THE KINGSMILL GROUP— THEIR CREWS PUT ON SHORT ALLOW- ANCE- PESCADORES KORSAKOFF-OBJECTS REMAINING UNACCOMPLISHED— SEPA- RATION OF THE VESSELS— LARGE QUANTITIES OF MOLLUSC.E— SHIP MAGNOLIA— OAHU-ARRIVAL AT AND DEPARTURE FROM HONOLULU-REACH COLUMBIA RIVER.

77-110

CONTENTS. vii

CHAPTER IV.

PREPARATIONS FOR THE SURVEY OF THE COLUMBIA— DIFFICULTIES AND DANGERS— BAKERS BAY— LIEUTENANT DE HAVEN SENT TO MEET MR. ELD-RAMSEY AND GEORGE, THE PILOTS-RETURN TO ASTORIA— PURCHASE OF A BRIG-MESSRS. HALE AND DANA GO WITH DR. M'LAUGHLIN-TRADE WITH THE INDIANS-SUPERSTITIONS OF THE INDIANS— SURVEY RESUMED TONGUE POINT THE VESSELS GROUND WAIKAIKUM— PREVALENCE OF FEVER AND AGUE— PILLAR ROCK— BOAT CAPSIZED KATALAMET POINT-LIEUTENANT EMMONS ORDERED TO SAN FRANCISCO— FIRE ON MOUNT COFFIN— PORPOISE GROUNDS AGAIN-WARRIOR'S POINT— VANCOUVER- SIR GEORGE SIMPSON— DIVIDENDS OF THE HUDSON BAY COMPANY— FORMAL DINNER —CHANGED APPEARANCE OF VANCOUVER— OBSERVATIONS AT VANCOUVER-ARRI- VAL OF MR. ELD'S PARTY— HIS EXPEDITION— HIS DEPARTURE FROM NISQUALLY— SQUAW CHIEF PORTAGE TO THE SACHAL— LAKES— EMBARKATION AND DESCENT OF THE SACHAL COUNTRY ON THE CHICKEELES CARVED PLANKS MR. ELD ENTERS GRAYS HARBOUR— THE INDIANS REFUSE HIM AID— DIFFICULTIES ATTEND- ING THE SURVEY— MR. ELDS PARTY IS RELIEVED BY LIEUTENANT DE HAVEN- SURVEY OF THE RIVER COMPLETED-CHARACTER OF GRAY'S HARBOUR-INDIANS OF THE NEIGHBOURHOOD— DEPARTURE FROM GRAY'S HARBOUR— PASSAGE ALONG THE COAST— ARRIVAL OF MR. ELD AT ASTORIA— ORGANIZATION OF THE EXPEDI- TION TO CALIFORNIA— DEPARTURE FROM VANCOUVER— POSTS OF THE HUDSON BAY COMPANY— TRADE OF THE HUDSON BAY COMPANY— CLIMATE OF OREGON— WINDS- FEVER AND AGUE— INDIAN POPULATION— PROGRESS DOWN THE RIVER LETTERS FROM THE UNITED STATES DEEP WATER— SURVEY OF THE COWLITZ PUG ET ISLAND— PILLAR ROCK— CHANNEL AT TONGUE POINT— RETURN TO ASTORIA— POR- POISE ANCHORS AT ASTORIA— PRIMEVAL FOREST PREPARATIONS FOR PASSING THE BAR— DISPOSITION MADE OF THE PEACOCK'S LAUNCH— BAR PASSED— SURVEYS COMPLETED ORNAMENTS, NORTHWEST COAST WE SAIL FOR SAN FRANCISCO- LETTER OF THANKS TO DR. M'LAUGHLIN-VOYAGE TO SAN FRANCISCO— ARRIVAL THERE-LAUNCH DESPATCHED TO MEET LIEUTENANT EMMONS 113—143

CHAPTER V.

ARRIVAL OF THE VINCENNES AT SAN FRANCISCO-PREPARATIONS FOR THE SUR- VEYS — SAUSALITO— LONG DROUGHT -PRESIDIO ALCALDE OF YERBA BUENA - TOWN OF YERBA BUENA-UNSETTLED STATE OF CALIFORNIA— CLIMATE OF SAN FRANCISCO-SOIL— CLIMATE OF CALIFORNIA RIVERS-HARBOURS— TRADE— MANU- FACTURE OF WINE INDUSTRY MILLS -SHEEP— SWINE— MAGISTRATES AND AD- MINISTRATION OF JUSTICE-REVOLUTIONS OF CALIFORNIA— OPINIONS IN RELATION TO THEM— RELATIONS WITH MEXICO— MODE OF RECRUITING FOR THE MISSIONS—

,jji CONTENTS.

PRESENT CONDITION OF THE INDIANS-CHANGE IN THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE MISSIONS ITS EFFECTS ON THE INDIANS THEIR NUMBERS NUMBERS OF THE WHITES-THEIR HEALTH-THEIR CHARACTER— THEIR MORALS-THEIR HOSPITALITY —THEIR CRUELTY-EXPEDITION UP THE SACRAMENTO— BAY OF SAN PABLO-DELTA OF THE SACRAMENTO-CAPTAIN SUTER— NEW HELVETIA— CAPTAIN SUTER'S FARM- ING AND OTHER AVOCATIONS— INDIAN DANCE DISEASES ROUTE TO OREGON- DEPARTURE FROM NEW HELVETIA— FEATHER RIVER— GAME-THE TULA— INDIANS BEARS INTERVIEW WITH A CHIEF MANNERS, ETC., OF THE INDIANS-THEIR RANCHERIA— THEFT BY AN INDIAN BUTE PRAIRIE-FISH-WEIR— KINKLA TRIBE- HUNTING-RETURN TO NEW HELVETIA— AMERICAN SETTLERS-INDIAN VILLAGES- OCCUPATIONS OF THE TWO SEXES— ARIDITY OF THE COUNTRY— CROPS— ANIMALS- RETURN OF SURVEYING PARTY TO THE VINCENNES— VISITS OF THE INHABITANTS TO THE SHIP— MARTINEZ FAMILY— AMUSEMENTS— CAPTAIN RICHARDSON— VALLEY OF NAPPA— TOWN OF ZONOMA- GENERAL VALLEJO MISSION OF SAN RAFAEL- FETE IN HONOUR OF A SAINT— BEAR AND BULL FIGHT EXCURSION TO SANTA CLARA-EMBARCADERO-ESTANCIA OF PERALTOS-DON MIGUEL DE PEDRORENA— MISSION OF SANTA CLARA— PADRE MERCADOR— CHURCH OF SANTA CLARA-GAR- DEN-PUEBLO OF SAN JOSE ITS ALCALDE MODE OF CONDUCTING BUSINESS IN CALIFORNIA - DIFFICULTY IN PROCURING HORSES DEPARTURE FROM SANTA CLARA CALIFORNIAN HORSEMAN RANCHEROS LAS PULGAS ESTANCIA OF SENOR SANCHEZ-YERBA BUENA— RETURN TO THE SHIP 149—214

CHAPTER VI.

EQUIPMENT OF LIEUTENANT EMMONS'S PARTY MULTUNOM AH ISLAND DIFFI- CULTIES — SICKNESS INEFFICIENCY OF SOME OF THE MEN-SETTLERS ON THE WILLAMETTE -MISSION ARIES THOMAS M'KAY- DEPARTURE FROM THE WILLA- METTE—ENCAMPMENT AT TURNER'S UPPER VALLEY OF THE WILLAMETTE CREOLE AND IGNAS CREEKS LAKE GUARDIPII WOLVES MALE CREEK ELK MOUNTAINS- ELK RIVER FORT UMPQUA— HOSTILE BEARING OF THE INDIANS PREPARATIONS FOR DEFENCE— NEW SPECIES OF OAK— DISCONTENT OF THE TRAP- PERS-FIRE IN THE PRAIRIES-BILLEY'S CREEK— FORD OF THE UMPQUA-ANIMALS -INDIAN SCOUTS-GRISLY BEARS— INDIAN FOUND IN THE CAMP— UMPQUA MOUN- TAINS -SHASTE COUNTRY— YOUNG'S CREEK— PINE SUGAR— ROGUES' RIVER-INASS SURPRISED BY INDIANS— SCENES OF FORMER CONFLICTS WITH INDIANS— FRIENDLY INDIANS SUFFERINGS FROM THE AGUE THREATENED ATTACK ANTELOPES RABBITS BOUNDARY MOUNTAINS EMMONS'S PEAK MOUNT SHASTE KLAMET RIVER— INTERVIEW WITH INDIANS— SHASTE INDIANS-THEIR SKILL IN ARCHERY— SHASTE RANGE LARGE PINES - CHALYBEATE SPRING - DESTRUCTION RIVER VALLEY OF THE SACRAMENTO-KINKLA INDIANS-THEIR VILLAGE-FAILURE TO OBTAIN CANOES-FORD OF THE SACRAMENTO— BUTES— FEATHER RIVER— CAPTAIN SUTER'S— RELICS OF AN EXTINCT TRIBE THE PARTY DIVIDED— RIVER SAN JOA-

CONTENTS. IX

CHIM-MISSION OF SAN JOSE-SANTA CLARA-YERBA BUENA-NOSTRA SENORA DE LOS DOLORES-THE LAND DIVISION REACHES THE VINCENNES-RESULTS OF THE EXPEDITION— CLOSING SCENE 215-250

CHAPTER VII.

PREPARATIONS FOR SAILING-NEW DISTRIBUTION OF OFFICERS— LIEUTENANT CARR APPOINTED TO THE COMMAND OF THE OREGON-PLAN OF OPERATIONS-DEPAR- TURE FROM SAN FRANCISCO-DANGEROUS POSITION OF THE VINCENNES-DEATH OF A MARINE— HIS BURIAL-SEARCH FOR COPPER'S ISLAND-PAILOLO CHANNEL- ARRIVAL AND RECEPTON AT HONOLULU-CASE OF HERRON, THE COOPER-TRADE OF THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS-THEIR POLITICAL RELATIONS-THEIR FUTURE PROS- PECTS—FINAL DEPARTURE FROM THEM— THE BRIGS PART COMPANY— INSTRUCTIONS TO MR. KNOX-THE FLYING-FISH PARTS COMPANY-SEARCH FOR MALOONS, JANES AND CORNWALUS ISLANDS WAKE'S ISLAND SEARCH FOR HALCYON AND FOL- GER'S ISLANDS LADRONE ISLANDS- GRIGAN SEARCH FOR COPPER'S ISLAND - SABTANG AND BATAN-CAPE CAPONES FLYING-FISH REJOINS THE VINCENNES- WE ANCHOR IN THE BAY OF MANILLA-GOVERNMENT GALLEY CRUISE OF THE FLYING-FISH-SEARCH FOR CORNWALLIS ISLAND-REEF DISCOVERED-SEARCH FOR SAN PABLO— MULGRAVE ISLANDS-BAPHAM'S, HUNTER'S, AND BARING'S ISLANDS- M'KENZIE'S GROUP 251—272

CHAPTER VIII.

ARRIVAL AT MANILLA— VISIT FROM THE CAPTAIN OF THE PORT VIEW OF THE CITY LANDING AT MANILLA ANCHORAGE TORT OF CAVITE CITY AND ITS BUILDINGS-ITS POPULATION— KIND RECEPTION BY THE AMERICAN CONSUL— WANT OF FACILITIES FOR REPAIRS— CITY GOVERNMENT DISCOVERY AND OCCUPATION OF THE PHILIPPINES— POLICY OF THE CONQ.UERORS GEOLOGICAL FEATURES OF THE ISLANDS-PRODUCTIONS AND AGRICULTURE AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS USE OF THE BUFFALO-CULTURE OF RICE-MANILLA HEMP-COFFEE— SUGAR-COT- TON-MODE OF TAKING PRODUCE TO MARKET— PROFITS OF AGRICULTURE— LABOUR —RAVAGES OF LOCUSTS-INHABITANTS-NATIVE TRIBES— POLICY OF THE GOVERN- MENT-CAPABILITIES FOR COMMERCE— MILITARY FORCE-INTERNAL DISTURBANCES —VISIT TO THE GOVERNOR-TENURE AND EMOLUMENTS OF HIS OFFICE— VISITS TO GOVERNMENT OFFICERS CAPTAINS SALOMON AND HALCON ROYAL CIGAR MANUFACTORY— MANUFACTURES - PINA - DANCING-MASTER AND PUPIL OCCUPA- TIONS OF THE HIGHER CLASSES-MARRIAGES-DRIVE ON THE PRADO-THEATRE- TERTULIA DRESS OF THE NATIVES COCK-FIGHTING— MARKET-FISHING-BOATS— BANCA— TRADE OF MANILLA— ENVIRONS OF THE CITY-CAMPO SANTO-BELLS AND BELFRIES-OONVENT-TAGALA TRIBE-TAGALA GRAMMAR— REVENUE OF THE PHI- LIPPINES—SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT— EXPEDITION TO THE INTERIOR— SANTA ANNA VOL. V, B

CONTENTS.

PATIVAS-FISHERIES ON THE RIVER AND LAKE-LAGUNA DE BAV-JALUJALU- SANTA CRUZ-MISSION OF MAGJAIJAI-ASCENT OF MOUNT MAGJAIJAI— RETURN TO THE MISSION— INSTANCE OF ECCLESIASTICAL DISCIPLINE— BAIA— HOT SPRINGS OF BANOS-ASCENT OF MOUNT MAOUILING— LAKE DE TAAL-BANOS-MULT1TUDE OF BIRDS-SCENERY ON THE PASIG-RETURN TO MANILLA— PREPARATIONS FOR SAIL- ING—DEPARTURE FROM MANILLA 273-319

CHAPTER IX.

DEPARTURE FROM MANILLA-INSTRUCTIONS TO MR. KNOX— MINDORO— SEMARARA— PANAY— FLYING -FISH LEAVES US— BAY OF ANTIQ.UE-SAN JOSE-MINDANAO-CAL- DERA— FORESTS OF MINDANAO— SANGBOYS— SOOLOO— SOUNG— CANOES OF SOOLOO- WE LAND AT SOOLOO-VISIT TO THE DATU MULU— HIS RESIDENCE— VISIT TO THE SULTAN— HIS RESIDENCE-IIIS PERSON AND DRESS— TREATY MADE WITH HIM— THE HEIR APPARENT— WE ARE REFUSED PERMISSION TO VISIT THE INTERIOR-PISTOL STOLEN— CHINESE Q.UARTER— THE KRIS-MARKET-BLOCKS OF AMERICAN GRANITE —STOLEN PISTOL RETURNED— VISIT OF THE NATURALISTS TO MARONGAS-FISHING APPARATUS SURVEY OF THE HARBOUR OF SOUNG SLAVES EMPLOYED AS AC- COUNTANTS—BEASTS OF BURDEN— PROHIBITION OF SWINE-CHARACTER OF THE PEOPLE OF SOOLOO— THEIR DRESS— OCCUPATIONS-STATE OF SOCIETY— MOUNTAIN TRIBES-FORTS-POPULATION-COMMERCE— DUTIES-ADVICE TO TRADERS-POSSIBLE EXTENSION OF TRADE— HISTORY OF SOOLOO-ATTEMPT OF THE ENGLISH EAST INDIA COMPANY TO OPEN A TRADE— ATTEMPTS AT CONaUEST BY THE SPANIARDS -GRANT OF BALAMBANGAN TO THE EAST INDIA COMPANY— ENGLISH SETTLEMENT —ITS FATE-FORMER PROSPERITY OF SOOLOO-PIRACIES OF THE SOOLOOS-MALAY PIRATES THE BAJOWS THEIR CHARACTER -CLIMATE OF SOOLOO DISEASES- RELIGION— DEPARTURE FROM SOOLOO— PANGOOTAARAANG CAGAYAN SOOLOO MANGSEE ISLANDS SURVEYS -BALAMBANGAN BORNEO THE DYACKS- THEIR CHARACTER, MANNERS, AND CUSTOMS NAVIGATION OF THE SOOLOO SEA— PAS- SAGE TO SINGAPORE— ARRIVAL THERE-REUNION OF THE SOUADRON- PROCEED- INGS OF THE PORPOISE AND OREGON— NECKER ISLAND— FRENCH-FRIGATE SHOAL— MARO REEF 321—307

CHAPTER X.

VARIETY OF SHIPPING IN THE ROADS— VIEW OF THE TOWN AMERICAN CONSUL —ENTRANCE OF THE RIVER LANDING VIEW FROM THE CONSULATE GREAT VARIETV OF COSTUMES, RACES, RELIGIONS, AND LANGUAGES-POLICE AND MILI- TARY FORCE— HISTORY OF THE SETTLEMENT OF SINGAPORE-ITS GOVERNMENT- TREATY OF 1824 -POLICY OF HOLLAND CHEAPNESS OF BUILDING SOCIETY - ISLAND OF SINGAPORE-TIGERS BOTANY AND CULTIVATED PLANTS MODE OP CONVEYANCE CHINESE INHABITANTS - THEIR GAMBLING THEIR APPEARANCR

CONTENTS. x,

AND DRESS— THEIR TEMPLE— THEIR FESTIVAL OF THE NEW YEAR— THEIR THEATRI- CALS—THEIR FUNERALS-FESTIVAL OF THE SHIITE MAHOMEDANS-AMUSEMENTS OF THE GENTOOS— BANISHED BRAHMIN— MAHOMEDAN SECTS— CONVICTS— MARKET- CURRENCY— TRADES— MALA YS-ARMENIANS-PARSEES-ARABS-CAFFRES— MIXTURE OF RACES— CHINESE CEMETERY— GENTOO BURIAL-PLACE— MAGNETIC OBSERVATORY —AMERICAN MISSIONARIES-PAPUAN SLAVES— MANUSCRIPTS— SHIP OF THE KING OF COCHIN-CHINA— CHINESE JUNKS TRADE OF SINGAPORE— TAXES— SLAVERY— OPIUM SHOPS SMALL PROPORTION OF FEMALES IN THE POPULATION PENINSULA OP MALACCA ITS GOVERNMENT ITS RELIGION MALAY CEREMONIES AT BIRTHS, MARRIAGES, AND FUNERALS-MALAY SACRIFICES-ANIMALS OF MALAYAN PENIN- SULA—PROBABLE INFLUENCE OF STEAM ON THE TRADE OF THE EAST— RAVAGES OF THE WHITE ANTS— CLIMATE OF SINGAPORE SALE OF FLYING-FISH DEPAR- TURE FROM SINGAPORE 371-410

CHAPTER XI.

DEPARTURE FROM SINGAPORE— STRAITS OF RHIO— STRAITS OF BANCA— STRAITS OF SUNDA— INDIAN OCEAN— CURRENTS AND METEOROLOGICAL PHENOMENA OFF THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE— ARRIVAL IN TABLE BAY— CAPE TOWN-GOVERNMENT OF THE COLONY— TAXES— BANKING— WINE TRADE— CATTLE-IMPORT TRADE-HOTTENTOTS -CAFFRE TRIBES— VISIT TO CONSTANTIA— ASTRONOMY AND MAGNETIC OBSERVA- TIONS—ASCENT OF TABLE MOUNTAIN GREEN POINT— LIGHTHOUSE— EXCHANGE- GARDEN OF THE BARON VON LUDWIG— CLIMATE OF THE CAPE-PHENOMENA OF REFRACTION— TENURES OF LAND— DEPARTURE FROM TABLE BAY— VOYAGE TO ST. HELENA JAMESTOWN VISIT TO THE TOMB OF NAPOLEON AND LONGWOOD MAGNETIC OBSERVATORY— PLANTATION-HOUSE— DEPARTURE FROM ST. HELENA PASSAGE TO THE UNITED STATES— ARRIVAL AT NEW YORK— CONCLUSION. . 413— 453

CHAPTER XII.

CONNEXION OF THE SUBJECTS OPPORTUNITIES AND MEANS OF OBSERVING CUR- RENTS DISTINCTION BETWEEN STREAMS AND CURRENTS CURRENTS OF THE NORTH ATLANTIC— LABRADOR STREAM— GULF STREAM— RENNELL CURRENT— SUB- MARINE POLAR STREAMS-GUINEA STREAM— EQUATORIAL STREAM— RECAPITULA- TION—SARGASSO SEA STREAMS OF THE SOUTH ATLANTIC BRAZIL STREAM PATAGONIAN STREAM-SOUTH AFRICAN STREAM— PHENOMENA OF THE NEIGHBOUR- HOOD OF ST. HELENA— POLAR STREAM OFF CAPE HORN ITS LOW SUBMARINE TEMPERATURE— CHILI STREAM— PHENOMENA AT THE GALLIPAGOS ISLANDS-INDI- CATION OF SUBMARINE POLAR STREAMS— PHENOMENA AT THE SOCIETY ISLANDS- AT THE SAMOAN GROUP— AT THE FEEJEE GROUP— AUSTRALIAN STREAM-SOUTH- ERN POLAR STREAM-NEW ZEALAND CURRENTS— CURRENTS BETWEEN TONGA AND FEEJEE-SUDDEN RUSH OF WATERS ON THE POLYNESIAN ISLANDS-SPACE OF VERY

xii CONTENTS.

ELEVATED TEMPERATURE-PACIFIC EQUATORIAL STREAMS— PHENOMENA OF THE SANDWICH ISLANDS-STREAMS OF THE NORTHWEST COAST-JAPAN STREAM— CUR- RENTS OF THE CHINA SEAS OF THE EAST COAST OF AFRICA EQUATORIAL STREAM OF THE INDIAN OCEAN— CURRENTS OF THE MALABAR COAST, CHAGOS, AND COMORRO ISLANDS-STREAMS OF THE MOZAMBIQUE CHANNEL— EQUATORIAL STREAM OF THE SOUTH ATLANTIC— GENERAL VIEW OF THE FACTS ZONES OF CALMS AND STILL WATERS— SUGGESTIONS IN RELATION TO THE THEORY OF CUR- RENTS—CONNEXION OF THE OCEAN STREAMS WITH THE MIGRATIONS OF THE SPERM WHALE— IMPORTANCE AND EXTENT OF THE WHALING INTEREST— CRUIS- ING-GROUNDS OF SPERM WHALERS-IN THE PACIFIC— IN THE ATLANTIC IN THE INDIAN OCEAN— DIRECTIONS FOR WHALING IN THE PACIFIC— RELATIVE TO THE DECREASE OF WHALES-RIGHT WHALE FISHERY-DEPRAVED CHARACTER OF THE NEW ZEALAND AND AUSTRALIAN WHALERS-CASE OF THE AMERICAN WHALE- SHIP ADELINE- RIGHT WHALE FISHERY IN HIGH LATITUDES EXCITEMENT OF THE FISHERY— SLAUGHTER AND TREATMENT OF THE PRODUCTS-PROFITS OF THE BUSINESS-FREQUENCY OF DISPUTES BETWEEN THE MASTERS AND CREWS-REME- DIES SUGGESTED-PROPOSAL FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE MORALS AND CONDI- TION OF THE CREWS . . .457—502

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

VOLUME V.

Oatafu Island.

Fakaafo or Bowditch Island.

Ficus or Banyan Tree.

Utiroa.

Mariapa.

Chief of Eta.

Astoria.

Pine Forest, Oregon.

Shaste Peak.

Encampment, Sacramento.

Manilla.

Manilla Cottagr.

Mosque, Sooloo.

Son of Sultan, Sooloo.

Chinese Temple.

PLATES.

Sketched by A. T. Agate.

Engraved by W. E. Tucker, 3

Sketched by A. T. Agate.

Engraved by J. Smillie, 14

Sketched by A. T. Agate.

Engraved by Rawdon, Wright and Hatch, 26 Sketched by A. T. Agate.

Engraved by T. House, 52

Sketched by A. T. Agate.

Engraved by Rawdon, Wright and Hatch, 5G Sketched by A. T. Agate.

Engraved by J. Paradise, 79

Sketched by A. T. Agate.

Engraved by Rawdon, Wright and Hatch, 113 Sketched by J. Drayton.

Engraved by W. E. Tucker, 116

Sketched by A. T. Agate.

Engraved by G. B. Ellis, 240

Sketched by A. T. Agate.

Engraved by J. W. Steel, 245

Sketched by A. T. Agate.

Engraved by J. A. Rolph, 275

Sketched by A. T. Agate.

Engraved by J. Smillie, 292

Sketched by A. T. Agate.

Engraved by J. B. Neagle, 333

Sketched by A. T. Agate.

Engraved by F. Halpin, 337

Sketched by A. T. Agate.

Engraved by J. A, Rolph. 371

XIV

LIS'!' OF ILLUSTRATION S.

Trading, Apia. Indian Burial-Place.

I'lNCENNES ON BaH.

Rice Stacks, longwood.

VIGNETTES.

Sketched by A. T. Agate.

Engraved by £. Gallaudet, 22

Sketched by A. T. Agate.

Engraved by J. Smillie, 219

Sketched by A. T. Agate.

Engraved by A. W. Graham, 25 G

Sketched by J. Drayton.

Engraved by J. Smillie, 287

Sketched by A. T. Agate.

Engraved by Smillie and Hinchehvood, 445

WOOD-CUTS.

Union Island Canoe. Bowditch Islander. Drill. Matetau.

Bowditch Islanders. Ellice's Islander.

Drawn by A. T. Agate. Engraved by R. H. Pease, Drawn by A. T. Agate. Engraved by R. H. Pease, From the Collection.* Engraved by R. S. Gilbert, Drawn by A. T. Agate. Engraved by R. S. Gilbert, Drawn by A. T. Agate.* Engraved by J. J. Butler, Drawn by A. T. Agate. Engraved by R. H. Pease, Costume, Ellice's Group. Drawn by A. T. Agate* Engraved by R. H. Pease, Drummond's Islander. Drawn by A. T. Agate. Engraved by R. S. Gilbert, Drummond's Island Warriors. Drawn by A. T. Agate. Engraved by R. S. Gilbert, Kingsmill Canoe. Drawn by A. T. Agate. Engraved by R. S. Gilbert,

Woman, Drummond's Island. Drawn by A. T. Agate.* Engraved by R. S. Gilbert, Girl, Peru Island. Drawn by A. T. Agate. Engraved by R. S. Gilbert, Makin Islander. Drawn by A. T. Agate. Engraved by R. S. Gilbert,

Kingsmill Arms. From the Collection.* Engraved by T. H. Mumford,

Inhabitant of Makin. Drawn by A. T. Agate. Engraved by T. H. Mumford, Drawn by A. T. Agate. Engraved by J. J. Butler,

Drawn by C. Wilkes, U. S. N.t Engraved by Clarke,

Drawn by C. Wilkes, U. S. N.t Engraved by R. O'Brien, Drawn by H. Eld. Engraved by R. S. Gilbert,

From the Collection. Engraved by J. J. Butler, From the Collection. Engraved by J. J. Butler,

Kingsmill Idol.

Ramsey.

George.

Carved Planks.

Masks, Northwest Indians,

Pipes, Northwest Indians.

Hats, Northwest Coast. From the Collection. Engraved by J. J. Butler,

Fish-weir. Pounding Acorns. Indians Gambling. Pack-saddles, &.c, Callapuya Indian. Umpqua Indian Girl. Sacramento Indian. Shaste Hut. Japanese. Banca, Manilla. Native of Luzon.

Drawn by Dr. Pickering. Engraved by R. S. Gilbert, Drawn by A. T. Agate.* Engraved by J. J. Butler, Drawn by A. T. Agate.* Engraved by J. J. Butler, Drawn by C. Wilkes, U. S. N.t Engraved by R. S. Gilbert, Drawn by A. T. Agate.* Engraved by R. S. Gilbert,

Engraved by J. J. Butler,

Engraved by R. H. Pease, Engraved by J. J. Butler,

Engraved by R. S. Gilbert, Engraved by J. J. Butler,

Engraved by J. J. Butler,

Drawn by A. T. Agate. Drawn by A. T. Agate. Drawn by A. T. Agate.* Drawn by A. T. Agate. Drawn by A. T. Agate.* Drawn by A. T. Agate.

11 12 17 30 34 38 3<J 46 48 49 51 67 73 75 83 110 114 114 128 146 146 148 188 192 214 217 223 226 242 250 260 272 292

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

XV

Manilla Costume. Manilla Banca. Negrito Boy. Sword, Manilla. Hatchet, Manilla. Environs, Manilla. Saraboa, Manilla. Caldera Fort. Sooloo Canoe. Houses, Soung, Riding, Sooloo. Sooloo Arms. Gextoo Monument. Hottentots. Refraction. Cape of Good Hope.

Drawn by A. T. Agate.* Engraved by J. J. Butler, 300

Drawn by A. T. Agate. Engraved by R. S. Gilbert, 302

Drawn by A. T. Agate. Engraved by R. S. Gilbert, 30G

From the Collection.* Engraved by R. S. Gilbert, 306

From the Collection* Engraved by R. S. Gilbert, 306

Drawn by F. D. Stuart. Engraved by R. S. Gilbert, 312

Drawn by J. Drayton. Engraved by J. J. Butler, 319

Drawn by J. Drayton. Engraved by J. J. Butler, 328

Drawn by J. Drayton. Engraved by R. S. Gilbert, 333

Drawn by A. T. Agate. Engraved by R. S. Gilbert, 333

Drawn by J. Drayton.* Engraved by J. J. Butler, 341

From the Collection. Engraved by J. J. Butler, 367

Drawn by T. R. Peale.* Engraved by J. J. Butler, 410

Drawn by A. T. Agate.* Engraved by J. J. Butler, 431 Drawn by C. Wilkes, U. S. N. Engraved by R. S. Gilbert. 440

Drawn by A. T. Agate. Engraved by R. S. Gilbert, 453

MAPS.

Western Groups, Pacific. Engraved by William Smith, Title Page.

California. Engraved by Sherman and Smith, 151

Sooloo Sea. Engraved by Edward Yeager, 323

Currents and Whaling-Grounds. Engraved by Sherman and Smith, 457

Those marked with a *, were drawn on the wood by G. Armstrong ; those marked with a t, by J. H. Manning. Those not marked by the Artists of the Expedition.

CHAPTER I.

CONTENTS.

DEPARTURE FROM OAHU WASHINGTON ISLAND JARVIS'S ISLAND MAGNETIC EQUATOR ENDERBURYS ISLAND BIRNIES ISLAND HULL'S ISLAND DUKE OF YORK'S ISLAND— ITS NATIVES VISIT THE SHIP— THEIR ALARM AT THE FIRING OF CANNON A PARTY LANDS ITS RECEPTION TATTOOING VILLAGE QUA YS-AB- SENCE OF CULTIVATION MUSIC CHARACTER OF THE NATIVES PRODUCTIONS DUKE OF CLARENCE'S ISLAND BOWDITCH'S ISLAND NATIVES SEEN FISHING INTERVIEW WITH THEM A PARTY LANDS PRIEST CAPTAIN HUDSON LANDS INTERVIEW WITH THE KING— VILLAGE AND TEMPLE— RELICS OF A VESSEL— WELL

DRUMS DRESS AND ORNAMENTS MANUFACTURES AND TOOLS - POPULATION GENTE HERMOSAS-SAVAII— UPOLU— APIA— STORM OF DECEMBER 1840 HURRICANES

HALOS PEA, THE CHIEF OF APIA-MODE OF TRADING IMPROVEMENTS NEW EFFORTS OF THE MISSIONARIES MALIETO AS ILLNESS, AND ITS CAUSE MOLE STRONG GALE-DESERTION FROM THE SURVEYING PARTY— DESERTERS RECOVERED —DEMAND FOR THE MURDERER OF SMITH— IT IS REFUSED EXCURSIONS OF THE NATURALISTS— JOE GIMBLET— VISIT TO MALIETOA RETURN OF THE BOATS-CAP- TAIN HUDSON PROCEEDS TO SALUAFATA, AND DESTROYS IT RESULTS OF THE PUNISHMENT— FRUITLESS ATTEMPT TO CAPTURE OPOTUNO— MATAATU— MALIETOA —FAREWELL VISIT FROM THE CHIEFS-THE VESSELS SAIL FROM MATAATU.

A

NARRATIVE

OF

THE EXPLORING EXPEDITION.

CHAPTER I.

BOWDITCH ISLAND.

1840.

As has before been stated, the Peacock and Flying-Fish left Oahu on the 2d December, 1840, under instructions which will be found in Appendix VIII., Vol. IV. They steered off to the southward until they reached the latitude of N., and longitude 160° W., a position in which it was thought that an island existed. This position was carefully examined, until they were satisfied that there was no land at or near the locality. They then steered for Washington Island, known on the chart of Arrowsmith as New York Island, which was found and surveyed. Its position is in latitude 41' 35" N., and longitude 160° 15' 37" W. It is three and a quarter miles long by one and a fourth wide, and is entirely covered with cocoa-nut and other trees, exhibiting a most luxuriant growth. There is a reef off its eastern point, which extends for half a mile. At the western end, a coral ledge extends two miles in a northwest-by-west direction, on which the water appears much discoloured, but the sea was not seen to break upon it, except close to the point of the island. The island is elevated about ten feet above the sea. The surf proved too heavy to allow of

(3)

4 BOWDITCH ISLAND.

their landing, and the island affords no anchorage. While off this island, the current was found setting to the northeast, at the rate of twelve miles in the twenty-four hours.

The positions in this neighbourhood where five islands have been reported to exist, were diligently searched for eight days ; but no land was seen, and Captain Hudson became satisfied that none but Wash- ington Island is to be found.

On the 20th December, they made Jarvis's Island, in latitude 22' 33" S., and longitude 159° 54' 11" W. This is a small coral island, triangular in shape, a mile and three-fourths in length east and west, and a mile wide north and south. It exhibits the appearance of a white sand-beach, ten or twelve feet above the sea, without a tree or shrub, and but a few patches of grass. The sea breaks violently around its shores, but no reef extends to any distance from the island, which may be closely approached. A few sea-birds were seen about the island. No landing could be attempted, the surf being too heavy. Captain Hudson considers this a dangerous island for navigators.

The Peacock and Flying-Fish, for the next fifteen days, were en- gaged in searching for Brooks's Island, Clark's Reef and various shoals ; but without success, and, after examining the neighbouring sea, left the locality, fully satisfied that if any islands or shoals had existed, in or near the places assigned to them, they must have been seen. They experienced here a current, setting to the westward at the rate of a mile an hour. Captain Hudson remarked, that although they had experienced generally a current setting to the westward, yet, almost invariably, the current-log gave a contrary result.

In latitude 55' S., longitude 160° 26' W., they found, by the dipping-needle, that they had reached the magnetic equator, which they followed until they reached longitude 171° W.

On the 9th January, 1841, they made Enderbury's Island, of the Phoenix Group, which has before been spoken of, as seen in the route of the Vincennes from the Feejee to the Sandwich Islands.

On the 11th, they made and surveyed Birnie's Island, which lies southwest from Enderbury's, in latitude 34' 15" S., longitude 171° 33' W. It has an elevation of no more than six feet above the sea ; is about one mile long and a quarter of a mile wide, trending about northwest and southeast. It is but a strip of coral, apparently uplifted, and is exceedingly dangerous for vessels, as it cannot be seen from a distance, and a vessel, in thick weather, would scarcely have time to avoid it after it was discovered.

A number of islands and reefs, reported to exist, were searched for in this neighbourhood, viz. : Mary Balcout's, Brothers', Robertson's,

BOWDITCH ISLAND. g

Phoenix, Harper's, and others, laid down, but not named, all of which are believed to have no existence whatever.

On the 17th January they made Hull's Island, which has already been described, and was surveyed by the Vincennes. The party of Tahitians employed in taking turtles had left it. Captain Hudson, believing this to be Sydney Island, ran off forty-five miles to the west- ward, for Hull's Island, but, of course, saw nothing of it, as it lies that distance to the eastward, in the same latitude.

The position of an island supposed to exist in latitude 23' S., and longitude 173° 25' W., was passed, but no signs of land were seen. They then ran over the supposed place of Fletcher's Island, in latitude 02' S., longitude 173° 22' W„ without seeing any shoal, island, or reef.

The effects of the rainy season were now felt in these latitudes, in sudden gusts of wind, with torrents of rain, that continued for a few hours of the night, and cleared up partially towards sunrise, after which the weather continued cloudy throughout the day, with squalls visible in various parts of the horizon. Our experience corroborated the generally conceived idea that this kind of weather usually occurs near small islands; but that these isolated spots, of such comparatively small size, can exert so great an influence in arresting and condensing the vapour, is not to me a satisfactory explanation. I am rather inclined to believe that it results more from the fact of the high tem- perature of the ocean in the neighbourhood, it being here nearly 90°, or several degrees greater than that of any other part of the ocean ; consequently, the evaporation would go on much more rapidly, which, becoming condensed in the higher portion of the atmosphere, is again thrown down in copious streams at night. This is particularly the case when the trade-winds are interrupted, that would otherwise carry off the vapour. As far as respects the interrupting or arresting the flow of currents, these islands may exert some influence; but the main cause I should be inclined to impute to the high temperature acquired by the water in consequence of there being no currents.

The next day they proceeded to the Duke of York's Island, which they made on the 25th, in latitude 36' S„ longitude 172° 23' 52" W. This is a lagoon island, of coral formation : its length east and west is three miles, and its width two and a half miles, north and south. There is no passage into the lagoon ; the sea breaks on the reef with violence ; but at high water a boat may pass over without difficulty, if proper care is taken. The islets that have been formed on the reef are eight or ten feet above the water, and are covered with cocoa-nut and pandanus trees.

A2

6 BOWDITCH ISLAND.

As they approached the island, three double canoes were seen coming towards the ship, but with great caution; the mizzen-topsail was backed to allow them to come up, which they did, singing and shouting, making many gestures, and waving pieces of matting. A white flag was waved in return, and various articles exhibited to induce them to come alongside, which they at last did ; but no inducement could prevail on them to come on board.

The canoes were all double, made of pieces of wood sewed together like those of Samoa, and were ornamented in like manner with white ovula-shells. The blades of their paddles also resembled those of the Samoans, being oblong and slender. The colour and features of these people showed that they belonged to the Polynesian race, and it was observed there was little or no difference between their appearance and that of the Samoans, to which dialect their language was allied. A Samoan who was on board the Peacock could partially understand them, but not unfrequently was entirely at a loss ; Mr. Hale, however, was enabled to comprehend many of the words. It appeared that their refusal to come on board proceeded from the singular apprehension that the ship would be lifted out of the water, and taken up to the sky, from which they believed she had descended. Some few of them got as far up as the gangway, one of whom had an ulcerated arm, which he desired might be cured.

In each canoe there were ten men, who wore the maro, which was braided like malting. On their head was a piece, made in some cases of matting, in others of tortoise-shell, and occasionally this ornament resembled an eye-shade, or the front of a cap, to protect the face from the sun ; their hair was cut short, and was the same in character as that of the Polynesians; they wore necklaces of shells, and small pieces of sponge, and wreaths of pandanus-leaves around the neck. Only one of those in the canoes seemed to be a person of note : in his shade were stuck several of the tail-feathers of the tropic-bird. A plane-iron and some blue beads were seen in their possession : this, with their know- ledge of trade and desire of carrying it on, proved that they had before had intercourse with ships. They exhibited great expertness in show- ing off their various articles to view, and were very eager to sell in order to obtain our articles.

They had matting, nets, fish-hooks of bone, wooden boxes, paddles, and miniature canoes. Whilst the bartering was going on, the ship fired a great gun, for the base by sound, with the tender. This created much consternation, and they all scrambled into their canoes under strong excitement, making a prodigious clamour, seized their paddles, and pulled for the island, in great trepidation.

BOWDITCH ISLAND. 7

After the natives had thus made a precipitate retreat, the boats were lowered, and a large party proceeded to land at the nearest point. The landing was effected on the coral shelf with some diffi- culty, and they found the natives, who had come alongside, ready to receive them, with every sign of friendship. They had apparently recovered from their alarm, and met the officers before they reached the beach, greeting them by rubbing noses and throwing their arms around their necks. Their excitement seemed to be so great that it was difficult for them to continue still for a moment, distracted by the numerous novel things around them. Some of them, however, were exceed ina;ly shy, and would not suffer themselves to be ap- proached ; others had greater confidence, but at the same time showed a respectful fear; while a few put their arms round the officers' necks, and exhibited a boldness devoid of dread of any kind. The latter urged the party to accompany them to their village. These different states of feeling were associated with a peculiar mode of singing, which they would continue for some time, during which nothing could induce them to stop; this ended, their astonishment and excitement would again appear to find relief in vociferating with great volubility for several minutes, at the end of which they would break out in a hearty laugh, without the least apparent cause. These islanders are tattooed on the cheeks, breast, legs, and above the hips.

A part of these marks consisted of two rows of lines running from the tip of the ear across the cheek and nose, with small crosses between. There were others passed around the body below the chest; many marks resembling fish were on the arms, and a sort of triangle, together with figures of turtles, on the breast. On the legs were many concentric rings. The markings were distinct and peculiar.

Their village, to which our party went, was on the inner or lagoon side of the island, and contained about thirty houses, which were raised about a foot above the surrounding earth : they were of oblong shape, about fifteen feet high to the ridge-pole, sloping gradually, and of a convex form to within two or three feet of the ground ; the roof was supported on high posts, whilst the lower part rested on short ones, three feet within the eaves, having a strong piece extending around, on which the rafters are tied ; the gable-ends were over- topped by the roof, and seemed necessary to protect them from the weather. Below the eaves, the whole was open from the ground to the roof. The thatching, made of pandanus-leaves, was of great thickness, and put on loosely. The interior of the houses was very clean, but there was no furniture except a few gourds, and a reclining

8 BOWDITCH ISLAND.

stool, cut from a solid block of wood, having two legs at one end, which inclined it at an angle of nearly forty-five degrees : to show the manner of lying in it, they imitated a careless and comfortable lounge, which they evidently considered a luxury. It was conjec- tured that they had removed their various household utensils to a secret place.

The most remarkable constructions of the islanders near the village, were three small quays, five or six feet wide, and two feet above the water, forming slips about ten feet wide: at the end of each of these was a small house, built of pandanus-leaves, partly on poles in the water. These appeared to be places for securing their canoes, and for the purpose of keeping their fishing implements. Three canoes were seen lying a short distance off in the lagoon, filled with the women and children. This was a precaution adopted to enable them to escape if it became necessary; yet they did not seem to apprehend any hostility. No kind of war implements was observed among them, and their bodies exhibited no marks of strife with each other.

There was an open space in the town, covered with coral-sand and pebbles, which they called mate. When they were asked by Mr. Hale for their " fale atua," (house of God,) they pointed to a place at a distance, and evidently understood the meaning of the question.

There was no cultivation whatever, and their only food appeared to be the cocoa-nut and fish. There were no animals seen, no fowls, dogs, or hogs. Captain Hudson left there a few young pigs, of which the natives took charge, but they did not evince that surprise which was expected at the sight of an unknown animal.

They have no water on the island, and the supply is wholly obtained from excavations made in the body of the cocoa-nut trees, two feet from the ground. These trees are all dug out on the lee side, towards which all are more or less inclined. These excavations are capable of containing five or six gallons of water.

Our gentlemen were under the impression that they saw the whole population, and counted forty male adults, which, on the supposition that they were one-third, would make the population one hundred and twenty.

This island